This document specifies a horizontal method for the enumeration of viable yeasts and moulds. It is applicable to — products intended for human consumption, — products intended for animal feeding, — environmental samples including air samples, in the area of food and feed production, handling and — samples from the primary production stage. This horizontal method was originally developed for the examination of all samples belonging to the food chain. Because of the large variety of products in the food chain, it is possible that this horizontal method is not appropriate in every detail for all products. Nevertheless, it is expected that the required modifications are minimized so that they do not result in a significant deviation from this horizontal method. A surface disinfection procedure is applied to inactivate the surface mycobiota and to study the fungi that invaded the food, often applied in solid foods such as nuts or grains. The method specified in the document does not include analysis of fungi after a surface disinfected step (e.g. using a hypochlorite solution). Neither the identification of the mycobiota nor the examination of foods for mycotoxins lie within the scope of this document. The method specified in this document does not include a heat-treatment and is therefore not suitable for detection and/or enumeration of heat-resistant fungi, such as Paecilomyces fulvus (syn. Byssochlamys fulva) or Aspergillus fischeri (syn. Neosartorya fischeri), ) in non-pasteurized samples.