ISO 815-1:2008 specifies methods for the determination of the compression set characteristics of vulcanized and thermoplastic rubbers at ambient or elevated temperatures.
The methods are intended to measure the ability of rubbers of hardness within the range 10 IRHD to 95 IRHD to retain their elastic properties at specified temperatures after prolonged compression at constant strain (normally 25 %) under one of the alternative sets of conditions described. For rubber of nominal hardness 80 IRHD and above, a lower compression strain is used: 15 % for a nominal hardness from 80 IRHD to 89 IRHD and 10 % for a nominal hardness from 90 IRHD to 95 IRHD.
NOTE 1 When rubber is held under compression, physical or chemical changes can occur that prevent the rubber returning to its original dimensions after release of the deforming force. The result is a set the magnitude of which depends on the time and temperature of compression as well as on the time and temperature of recovery. At elevated temperatures, chemical changes become increasingly more important and lead to a permanent set.
NOTE 2 Short-time compression set tests, typically for 22 h, at elevated temperatures are commonly used as a measure of the state of cure, a means of material classification and a specification to ensure the quality of a compound. Longer tests, typically for 1 000 h, at elevated temperatures take account of the effect of ageing and are often used to predict service performance, including that of sealing materials. Short-time tests at ambient temperature show mainly the effect of physical changes (re-orientation of the molecular chains and the fillers).